What is Periodontology?

This area of dentistry focuses on issues with the periodontium, which is another name for the hard and soft tissues that support the teeth, including the gums, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cement. Together, these components maintain the teeth fixed and stable in the jaws when chewing.
Hence, periodontology focuses on the identification, medical management, and also prevention of periodontal diseases. During the dental exam, the specialist looks at your gums, determines whether there has been gum recession, and uses a probe to check the periodontal gaps, or the spaces between the teeth and gums.

Periodontal Diseases

Due to poor oral hygiene, gingivitis, tartar buildup, dental treatments, smoking, diabetes, vitamin C deficiency, and other pathologies, periodontitis is a significant and hazardous condition that can result in tooth loss and systemic pathologies. Although it is frequently treated with modest symptoms that prevent people from realizing they have it, it can also be brought on by inherited factors.

Symptoms of Periodontal Diseases

  • Bleeding gums during the use of a toothbrush
  • Redness and swelling of the gums
  • Heavy halitosis
  • Deep pockets formation between teeth and gums
  • Teeth loosening
  • Pain during chewing
  • Plaques and/or pus on the gums

Periodontology: Gingivitis

The smallest of all periodontal illnesses, this one shows itself by a reddening of the gingival margins, swelling, and even bleeding when the toothbrush is rubbed against the gums. It can manifest in either a chronic or acute state; the plaque that covers the teeth and gums in the former case causes it, whereas specific illnesses or traumas cause it in the latter.

By brushing and flossing regularly, good dental hygiene can help prevent gingivitis.

In addition to poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, aging, drug misuse, some medications, HIV infection, and genetic predisposition are other causes of gingivitis. Pregnancy and adolescence can also induce gingivitis.

Periodontology: Periodontitis

Alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament are impacted by periodontal disease. Hardly little pain is experienced as the disease proceeds from gingivitis to periodontitis; instead, teeth loosing is the only sign of the condition.
Periodontitis can develop from untreated gingivitis. If the plaque is not removed, it spreads behind the gum. Toxins given off by the bacteria irritate the gums and cause an inflammation that weakens the tissues holding the teeth in place. Periodontal pockets will form, and the infection will spread, damaging the gum tissues. They could become loose and need to be pulled out.

Treatment and Therapy of Periodontal Diseases

The stage of the disease determines the course of treatment for gingivitis and periodontitis. In the early stages of gingivitis, simply the plaque must be removed and proper dental hygiene must be practiced every day. Specific non-surgical treatments are used to inhibit bacterial growth, while surgical treatments are used to rebuild the tissue that supports the teeth. 

As previously indicated, the dentist will do a thorough dental cleaning to eliminate plaque and tartar during the early stages of the condition.

To eliminate the plaque and tartar from deep periodontal pockets, thorough cleaning of the root surfaces under local anesthesia may be necessary.

  • Reduction of periodontal pockets: the tartar is removed by lifting the gums and then repositioning them adherent to the teeth.
  • Bone grafting: fragments of your own bone, synthetic bones, or donated bones are used to replace the destroyed bone. The graft will allow bone growth.
  • Soft tissue grafts: these serve to reinforce the gums with grafted tissue, taken from the mouth.
  • Guided tissue regeneration: stimulates the growth of the gum and the bone tissue. A tissue is inserted between the bone and the gum allowing the bone and gum tissue to grow back.
  • Bone surgery: it serves for moderate or advanced bone loss. The bone around the tooth is reshaped to prevent the growth of bacteria.